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    Post  butterfly Sat 26 Apr 2014, 18:49

    Escalating violence and the growing authoritarianism of the owners are pushing the Iraqis to draw a picture of a black to the future of their country

    Translation term

    Seeks Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki to a third term. Many Iraqis fear of another civil war and believe that al-Maliki is to blame for it.

    at Christmas last year, the back of Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki on television to wish for the Christian minority in Iraq - which escapes in the thousands since the U.S. invasion in 2003 - a happy holiday. Al-Maliki, of the sixty-third year-old, wearing a blue suit and purple tie, and was standing on the platform completely static surrounded by Iraqi flags. His face was frowning reflects, as usual, a look of absolute depression. Having spent most of his life chased by the killers, it gives the impression of a man who learned a long time ago that suppresses his feelings without mercy.

    A colleague told me tenth for a long time, saying, "It is not never smiles, does not say thank you never, never did hear him say I'm sorry." For owners of greetings was just an excuse. What he wanted to talk to him is really the protests that were taking place in Anbar province west of Baghdad, where he said "Thank God I have revealed the truth."

    When the last American soldiers left Iraq at the end of 2011, the throttle was a bloody civil war between Sunni and Shiite communities, but without solutions. Today back sectarian violence and intensely scary. Over more than a year, thousands of Iraqis - nearly all of them Sunnis - gathered to denounce the Maliki government, which is dominated by Shiites.

    Although the protests were mostly peaceful, but the security forces responded by harshly and arrested thousands of year without charges, and in one of the camps practiced wave of violence that left hundreds of civilians dead.

    In all parts of the Sunni strongholds north and west of Baghdad, crowds filled the squares of cities grew angry and radical rhetoric. In the city of Ramadi, lifting protesters jihadists black flags representing the extremist group affiliated with al-Qaeda had seized control of the city during the American occupation. Shouted a man from the platform the protest camp, saying, "We are a group called al-Qaeda, we will cut off the heads and achieve justice" Vhf his crowd.

    During his speech televised on the occasion of birthdays, Maliki ordered the protesters to leave the square to protest, and claimed, ignoring the excesses of his men, that the protests are dominated by extremists, "this site has become a base for al Qaeda and full of murderers and criminals," and ended his speech with what was considered by fueling passion, to make one of his hands on the podium, a says "there will be no negotiations as long as the scene is still in place."

    In Ramadi, protests, was a member of parliament from the year named Ahmed al-Alwani raises crowds, accusing Maliki's alliance with the Iranian regime, the largest Shiite power in the region. Shouted Alwani through the loudspeaker, a move his finger in the air, pointing to al-Maliki and those around him that they "Safavids" and "wise men", a terminology indicate invaders Iranians, he said, "My message to the snake Iran! To hear and know that those gathered here will re Iraq to its people ! ". Three days after the speech al-Maliki, the security forces cordoned off the residence Alwani. Officials claimed that they did not go to arrest him - being a deputy in parliament and has immunity - but because his brother was arrested on charges of asking vague concerning terrorism. Battle took place and a fire broke out, government forces killed six people and took Alwani. Showed a picture of prison contraband Alwani wearing an orange suit with bruises on his face. Have been much worse if his brother where he was killed during the battle.

    After that, the troops immediately evacuate the camp in the gray day did not exist when many of the protesters. There were Anbar province as a whole, along with the rest of the Sunni areas of Iraq, did not stop the violence. Where hit by a wave of car bombs and suicide bombers Baghdad; in January killed more than a thousand Iraqi civilians, most of them Shiites, making it one of the bloodiest months since the height of the American war. In an attempt to quell the uprising, al-Maliki took two largest cities in the province - Fallujah and Ramadi - and artillery bombardment began. Resigned Forty-four MPs. In Ramadi and Fallujah police to leave their positions.

    Maliki ordered, after he apparently realized that he had abused the account, army troops to leave the cities. Within hours, dozens of gunmen crept wheels flying black flags to advertisers that they are inside the cities of the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant, a splinter group of al-Qaeda.

    Locals said: The group was composed of men have already fought the Americans. A resident of Fallujah, as he watched the rebels entering the city, "she sleeper cells. Base was disguised here all the time, and now controls Fallujah." The takeover of Islamist extremists on the Iraqi region, only two years after the Americans leave, stimulate abnormal wave of soul-searching in the United States and Iraq, which lost more than three hundred thousand men and women in the province of Anbar. Most of the thinking in both countries was focused on al-Maliki, the man who invested when the United States a lot of hopes and resources. Concern that dominates most of the Iraqis that their country is slipping back into civil war, and that al-Maliki is pushing to the brink of war. On the thirtieth of April, Iraqi voters will go to the ballot for the election of the Parliament, and thus prime minister; After eight years in office, Maliki is seeking to a third term. Many fear that his victory will allow him to tighten his grip on the state. He said his old colleague, "If he wins this time, it will not leave." I saw al-Maliki at his office in the month of February, it seems rigid and pale, as demonstrated through his television - wearing the same blue suit and purple tie, he was talking monotonous tone, particularly free expression, his body apparently nailed the chair. The office was a sterile room where no trace heating, free of windows because they had strewn by the bombings.

    When asked about al-Maliki Anbar, gave me a confused explanations about the reason for his forces to arrest Sunni lawmaker. "No one can deny that he and his brother were carrying arms against the Iraqi government." Shone his face when I asked him about his re-election. He told me that he has earned the right to keep his job because - among other things - follow a policy of treating Iraqis equally, regardless of their sect, and he resisted the forces that were tearing his country, he said, "First of all, we have maintained a united Iraq."

    During an interview with al-Maliki, we felt the room shake a little, shook as teapots. A car bomb a few hundred yards from the fortified area inhabited by al-Maliki. She was one of eight blasts hit Baghdad on that day, leaving thirty-four people were killed. There was silence for a moment, then turned to one of his companions al-Maliki said: "I go to see what it was."

    During the depths of the American occupation, in 2007, Baghdad was similar to the medieval city under siege. American soldiers were guarding each building, they are part of a force of one hundred and sixty-five thousand all over the country, with about 30 thousand contractor and five thousand British troops. All areas were closed concrete walls to protect residents from sectarian killers who roam the city. However, the morning show every day dozens of bodies in the streets, mostly idle, and their heads covered with sacks and acids and their bodies burned Mnkhurh holes.

    Two years after the departure of the last American soldiers, it is difficult to find any evidence that those bodies were found there. Concrete walls outside office buildings, leaving only a few of the Americans parading around the capital to help the Iraqis using American military equipment and drilling for oil. Iraq has become one of the largest producers of oil in the world, but little of the profits up to citizens; Today Baghdad is a place of monotonous strewn with garbage as it was before,-space-free construction, as if the residents were exhausted they can not celebrate calm the solution late 2008, they are not confident that the calm will last.

    The impact of the U.S. war is a blast whether thousands of car bombs or buried under the street. Blasts back today, sometimes dozens. In January a corner of persons which is operated his car in front of a cafe in Baghdad's Kasra district, and it walked away. Moments later, the car exploded and destroyed many shops and killed five people in addition to the injured twenty-seven others.

    One was dead - Abdulkarim nice - a taxi driver and on the verge of marriage. A few hours later I saw his funeral mourners waving to a small car in preparation for burial, a group of women were screaming, one survivor said, "May God take revenge from those who carried out this act."

    Sectarian bloodshed during the civil war on the areas, which were inhabited for hundreds of years year and Shiites together, into the pockets of the doctrine of one, the year he moved to the west of Baghdad and Shiites to the east. These days, any safety we are seeing in the city thanks in part to the continued separation that occurred during the civil war, and he says Matthew Sherman former civilian adviser to the U.S. military, "there is no longer have to kill him." In contrast, it has regained some areas of Baghdad diversity of having gone through hell first.

    The rise of Iraq's Shiites of the biggest legacies of the U.S. invasion that overthrew the Sunni and the Shiite-led government replaced - the first government since the eighteenth century. Eight years later to take over the authority of al-Maliki, Iraqi secreted results. Still the Green Zone, as it was during the American war; quiet area and focus slimmed down in the jungle of trouble. Politicians Atsabon from one meeting to another and rarely dare to cross the gates. When asked MP Yassin Majeed meet me for coffee, he said, "I do not want to get out of the Green Zone."

    The next election will be the first that the U.S. lacked supervision. We have to pay the current violence and the growing authoritarianism of the owners of many of the black paint a picture of the future. Hanaa Edwar told me, which runs the non-profit organization of hope, and we drink tea in her home that she was opposed to the U.S. invasion, despite its dislike for Saddam Hussein, said "I thought it was an Iraqi issue and not an American", though it was not the Americans dream of a better friend.

    After the threat by the militants and the government has harassed, Adoor organization established to train women - among other things - to launch a campaign to win elective office. She is proud of her work, but ashamed of Iraq, which was produced by al-Maliki and was sponsored by the Americans, and began the multiplicity of the list of problems, "the divisions among the people, the failure of public services, corruption, violations of human rights, the judicial system! There is no judicial system is real. We lose everything."

    Three years ago, four demonstrators were arrested by the advocates of democracy in Baghdad, and al-Maliki has publicly described as "criminals and murderers." In a conference, headed by the odor and raised a large picture of the group, she says, "are criminals and murderers! Have sacrificed thousands of people," What was al-Maliki, however, shouted to his companions, saying, "The Khrōha" any Ibaduha from here.

    Hanaa Edwar asked about the elections, whether the change will save the country. Looked tired eyes and said, "We're going into the abyss."

    Begins the new Iraqi constitution - which was written a great American contribution - the story of the creation of democracy in Iraq, "We the people of Mesopotamia, the home of the apostles and prophets ... We drove the first time in our history toward the ballot boxes in the millions."

    In fact, the formation of the government - and the rise of al-Maliki - thanks to two Rebecca West, describing the difficulties that are inevitable in international politics, which are called "clumsy gestures based on imperfect knowledge."

    At the beginning of 2006, and with the intensification of the civil war, was summoned U.S. Ambassador Zalmay Khalilzad to a televised conference with President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair. In the parliamentary elections held in December of the same year, he won the alliance of Shiite parties most seats. However, the candidate for prime minister, Ibrahim al-Jaafari, was suffering in order to form a government. Jaafari has angered President Bush Petrddh, and Ptsahlh toward sectarian bloodshed that followed the bombing of a Shiite shrines large.

    During the conference, televised, Khalilzad, Bush asked, "Can you get rid of Jaafari?," Khalilzad responded, "Yes, but it will be difficult." Khalilzad told me that he worked for several days to prevent al-Jaafari to ensure a parliamentary majority and finally succeeded. But as a condition for the withdrawal quietly, he insisted on al-Jaafari to be the next prime minister from his own party - the Dawa party - who fought for five decades for the interests of the Shiites.

    Ali al-Adeeb was in charge of the party seems logical candidate. Khalilzad, however, was not comfortable with him because his father, an Iranian, and that many Iraqis were convinced that Iran was secretly controlled the country. Khalilzad said "It is the blood of the Persian .. this is what they think."

    After his frustration, he turned to Khalilzad analyst CIA index in his office, a spokesman fluent in Arabic and was known for his duty to the Iraqi leaders. The analyst said, "Is it possible that, in a country than thirty million people, is not there Jaafari incompetent, or Iranian writer Ali? Have a name for you, it is al-Maliki."
    Maliki was not known in American circles, despite his work in the committee purging the Iraqi government of members of the Baath Party. The analyst said, "It's clean and non-corrupt, and has no apparent connection to terrorist activities," adding, "We have no proof of that," Unlike Jaafari it "tough guy" seems to be able to challenge the Iranian regime.

    Khalilzad said, "Let me see him." That night during dinner and long at the U.S. Embassy, ​​Khalilzad, al-Maliki asked whether he thought that becoming prime minister. Khalilzad laughingly recalls how the Maliki jumped awesomely. But with the continued talk between Maliki said that he can ensure the votes, and so asked Khalilzad facilities to ask the White House telephone. Khalilzad said, "We have been informed Washington that there is a change in plans. Approved Kurds and Sunni politicians to his nomination, and within three months became al-Maliki as prime minister of Iraq.

    Khalilzad asserts that he did not choose Maliki "We were trying to reunite Iraqis." Maliki was often repeats angrily that he did not need the support of the Americans to get what he wanted from the Iraqis. For him it was the Americans just chock additional foreign power. Since his youth, he was al-Maliki set himself a soldier in the struggle to get rid of Shiite oppression, this means facing entrenched Sunni minority, which provided the basis for the brutal dictatorship of Saddam. For the owners, the result was decades of conflict, conspiracy and the secret war. Maliki was born in 1950 in the village of Jnajh located on the Euphrates River in southern Iraq, when Shiites began to get rid of the legacy of the British occupation. His grandfather, Mohammed Abu-haired beauties flustered known political.

    Maliki said in an interview in 2012 with the Iraqi Media Network, "was a real flustered does not care about material things." After the departure of the British, the work of the father of al-Maliki to undermine the new dominant power - the Baath Party. Exposure grandfather and his father to the prison at the hands of Zalmém. Maliki when he was a teenager, began to transform the region's politics profoundly transformed. In 1967 Israel insulted combined Arab armies in the Six Day War - the defeat of the Arab youth to stimulate a tendency to political Islam. At that time almost joined al-Maliki to the Dawa Party, a secret organization pledged to build an Islamic state in Iraq. Then in 1979, there has been an uprising in Iran brought down the Shah ally of the United States, and set up a revolutionary Shiite theocracy. Stimulate the oppressed Shiites in the region.

    In a television interview in Iraq, Maliki said he interact with those demented enthusiasm to the point that his colleagues warned him not to attract the attention of the police, "I have all my reservations disappeared."

    By Dexter Flakinz
    About: The New Yorker

    Posts : 52311
    Join date : 2013-01-17


    Post  butterfly Sat 26 Apr 2014, 18:50

    Impressed skillfully Qasim al-Maliki to stay in power and said to Crocker: in order to avoid his fate on the dance all the time

    Translation term

    What we left behind in Iraq (h 2)

    In 1979, Saddam rose to the presidency launched a broad campaign against Shiite opponents Voadm and jailed thousands of them. Maliki was on the sidelines, where he was studying at the Faculty of Islamic government in Baghdad and received a degree in theology and Arabic literature, he wanted to become a teacher, but - as he says - that the refusal of belonging to the Baath Party make that impossible.

    found a job as an accountant in the Department of Educational Hilla, which was headed by a cell of the Dawa party local. One day, the security men broke into his office, where some members of the Dawa Party, working in secret, and his companions were arrested. "We have arrested all those who were associated with me and executed them in two or three." After a few days, the security men came to his home and "arrested my brother and my cousin and destroyed everything, but they did not find me."

    "We have been executed sixty-seven members of his village." In September 1980, Saddam invaded Iran and began harassing Shiite sympathizers with Iran fiercely believing they Ejonnouna more at home. Were arrested, al-Maliki and a fellow at the hands of agents of the Baath, Fsaboa his eyes and started Istntqouna. He said to his friend, "This is the end of our lives," but they released him.

    Maliki fled from Iraq is no longer him until the U.S. invasion in 2003, with the exception of some operations in areas controlled by rebel Kurds. His days in exile was tough on the Shiites in Iraq. In 1980, the arrest of the leader of the Dawa Party, Mohammed Baqir al-Sadr was executed. After a decade on it and after the Gulf War, the United States encouraged the massive Shiite uprising played the role of the Dawa Party, a major.
    Saddam responded by murdering a hundred and fifty thousand Iraqis, most of them Shiites. The United States did not move a finger making the Shiites believe she betrayed them. Maliki abroad continued to fight against Saddam and pleased with the help of the offer of assistance. In Damascus, and by working under the code name "Horse", was planning military operations inside and outside Iraq.

    The decisive moment came in July 1982 when gunmen opened fire call in the city of Dujail, Saddam's convoy and killed two of his bodyguards. In response, Saddam's men arrested eight hundred residents of the city among them women and children, and deposited dozens in prison and was tortured to death and thus were executed more than a hundred were destroyed city.

    Maliki said he did not participate directly in the process, although he knows who executed, "We tried several times to assassinate Saddam, but we have failed." That was a commotion in the Shiite sect. When he tried to deploy Iranian revolution, they trained agents throughout the Middle East, and started a network of Shiite militants secretly gather to exchange information and sometimes to carry out attacks. Dawa was one of several organizations hit Saddam and Western backers. In 1981 the call with the help of militants launched a suicide attack on the Iranian-Iraqi Embassy in Beirut, killing the ambassador and sixty others.

    Maliki said he was not involved in the process, but by his old colleague, Maliki was responsible for all the political activities of the Dawa Party in Syria and Lebanon, "was definitely involved in the bombings and knows the father of Mary who bombing. Despite the fact that the attack resulted in the killing of Iraqis, however, that most of them were civilians. considered leaders call it a victory. said the old fellow to the owners, "We were very happy, we consider the embassy nest of spies."

    In the following year, he moved to Iran, where Maliki was driving in the city of Ahwaz border camp for training Iraqi militants to carry out missions against the invading army of Saddam. The operation was funded and the supervision of the Iranian Revolutionary Guard as Colleague "no one can move in that camp without permission from the Iranians." Maliki stayed in Iran for seven years fighting against his own mother, but the war ended in an impasse.

    In his interview with Iraqi television, Maliki said he lost three and sixty fighters "Some of them died in Iraq and others in Iran and their graves are still there." He told me a former senior official at the Central Intelligence Agency had previously worked in Iraq during the war, that U.S. officials had received special reports on the dark aspects of the past, al-Maliki. But U.S. diplomats who worked in Iraq after the invasion did not find evidence of the involvement of al-Maliki in any terrorist acts. Someone said that "to get a detailed picture of al-Maliki is very difficult. All we know he was not a bad man deceptive like others."

    When officials to meet with Maliki, the Americans, denied his involvement with terrorist attacks and distanced himself from his patrons in Iran. He told Ryan Crocker, the U.S. ambassador in Iraq, then "you can not know what is what arrogance were not Arab Iraqis have to resort to the Iranians." He said he did not learn the Persian language and had never used a translator whenever he met Iranian officials. But his colleague, who attended the meetings with the Iranians, said "al-Maliki can easily speak Farsi."

    Although Maliki's insistence that Hezbollah - the militia and political party backed by Iran - was anathema to the Dawa Party, said the colleague said Maliki was close to Hezbollah. But U.S. officials considered the reports of al-Maliki and his companions just rumors. At one point discussed Maliki and Crocker a series of attacks in 1983 and during which activists call for workers in the bombing of the embassies of Kuwait United States and France in retaliation for their support of Saddam. Maliki acknowledged that the bombers were members of the Dawa party, but they were working exclusively for the benefit of Iran, Crocker says, "We decided to consider his words reasonable."

    Says Jeffrey Beals, a former U.S. diplomat, said the United States knew that the Dawa Party carried out the attacks but did not consider that the participation of al-Maliki, which prevents his candidacy; Most of Iraq's new leaders were previously involved in such activities. As explained Beals, the Americans have decided to wait for a clean partner is completely impractical "because the history of the armed struggle against Saddam's secret is not a factor prevents qualify."

    When al-Maliki returned to Baghdad in April 2003, was viewed with hostility to the United States deep, according to his friends and colleagues; Over the years, the government of the United States supports almost all of his enemies - especially Saddam - and hostile to his friends - especially the revolutionary regime in Iran.

    Zia said Alchukrgi, an activist in the Dawa Party, during the eighties, "Maliki was known for his hostility to the Americans., Even after 2003, he was a hostile attitude towards them."

    But al-Maliki did not know any of the Americans, Time is spent in Iran and the Middle East did not allow him to identify the exiles others - people like Ahmed Chalabi and Iyad Allawi, the sons of the aristocracy who fled to London and New York or Chicago where they became speak English fluently and have a familiarity with Western culture. Some of those exiles, who are still competing with al-Maliki to power, call it disregard the word "Ma'dan." Says the old fellow, "Saddam was Ma'dan of the year, either al-Maliki, it is Ma'dan Shiites." His friends say that al-Maliki, who holds a master's degree Arabic literature from Baghdad University, squeamish about this contempt. "Met Beals Maliki in 2004 when Maliki was vice-president of the Interim Governing Council installed by the United States before the first elections. Recalls Beals said Maliki was serious and committed even though he was aware that the Americans did not give the Council are only a few real powers. over more than a year on the U.S. occupation Maliki was still uses the pseudonym "Jawad." was working constantly from shabby office where carpets worn and doors do not have handles, and rarely participate in pleasantries.

    Beals said, "During my observation of him as he works in the hall of parliament, was the only one who holds the views of the American work habits to some extent." At one point asked Beals tells him that nothing about his past, Bales says, "his eyes filled with tears, I think he saw a large gap between my life and the lives of horror and intrigue that was experienced."

    Saddam's fall was an indication of the struggle of al-Maliki, but not the end of him. Says Bales "There was no separation nor a sense of victory, it was clear in his view that the war is not over, all that was established could collapse may be due expedition. Wearer bombings overseas as it gets now. Was lighting stranded as they are now, it is hard to disagree with him. "

    Maliki when he became prime minister, some Iraqis hoped would help in uniting the country. Bring members of parliament to the coalition, and promised to communicate with the Sunnis and the Kurds. But he was often used his position to continue the war for the Shiites, and the fight against what he sees as revenge for the Sunni group can not conform.

    Describes Sami al-Askari, who worked with al-Maliki in the de-Baathification committee, anger Shiites continued their oppressors old "You combine the offender and the victim and tell him you forgive, the offender reduce that moment says not committed any crime. Verde it does not expect me to forgive you."

    Maliki took the same trusted friends and family members of those who have gone through years of guerrilla warfare and the imprisonment and torture at the hands of Saddam loyalists. Hussain al-Shahristani was - Deputy Prime Minister - a prisoner and tortured in Abu Ghraib prison, where he spent ten years in solitary confinement.

    Maliki has provided a safe haven for former fighters. In the mid-eighties, a Kuwaiti court convicted a member of the Dawa Party, Abu Mahdi Engineer, for the embassy attacks in 1983 in addition to the attempt to assassinate the Emir of Kuwait. During the American occupation led the militia was responsible for dozens of attacks on coalition forces.

    Today he lives comfortably engineer in the Green Zone, not far from the residence Maliki. When asked about the reason for al-Maliki, allowing the survival engineer, told me that he rejects the court's ruling Kuwaiti and other charges did not prove it, he said, "if we had evidence against him Fsnatqlh off."

    At the beginning of 2007, when he became ambassador Ryan Crocker in Baghdad, al-Maliki decided to visit alone without escorts or agenda. The civil war kills two thousand civilians every month, and the gunmen were stronger than ever. In a desperate gamble President Bush decided to send "momentum" of twenty thousand extra combat for control of the country.

    Crocker was still young political at the U.S. Embassy in Baghdad in 1980 when the call was executed leader Mohammed Baqir al-Sadr. That night infiltration activists call to the streets and hung pictures in the chest around the capital Baghdad. Crocker was able to come out and get on one of them and mention it to the owners, saying, "I was trying to know the opinion of the street."

    During their conversation, recalled Maliki thousands of dead colleagues told Crocker he would have preferred a life outside politics under different circumstances - and "was quoting verses from the long pre-Islamic Arabic poetry."

    During an interview with al-Maliki about the difficulty of navigating through the political life in Iraq, said the Iraqi leader Abdul Karim Kassem, who helped in 1958 to overthrow the monarchy of Faisal II, backed by Britain and the execution of members of the royal family. After keeping power, the denominator land reclamation and expansion of women's rights. Maliki was elated Qasim programs and special skills to stay in power. Crocker said, "Kasim proficient at the intersection of double and triple. Was supported by a faction against another and when worsen it, he supports the other faction in order to not more than the power of one. In 1963, has been dropped Qasim and his execution at the hands of the Baathists. Order to avoid Maliki same fate, said Crocker," Ali I keep the dance all the time. "

    From the beginning, al-Maliki focuses on conspiracies hatched against him by his rivals, and by the Baathists who believed they were still in the Iraqi army, and even by the Americans. Former U.S. diplomat described this as "Nixon's paranoia," adding, "We have a hundred and fifty thousand fighters in the country, which is preoccupied with a handful of Baathists who are trying to bring him down."

    He told me that his old colleague Maliki basic premise is that "Everyone conspires him." However, extreme caution has good service. It's a masterful tactician - all short-term policies, does not have any vision for the state. "

    It does not matter how much he likes the size of al-Maliki's political deceit, his early years as prime minister was characterized by helplessness and frequency. Some of those who worked with him closely are convinced that got the job because he is unlikely to demand its own style of governance. Explains, "Emma Sky," Chancellor of the U.S. Army Civil, reason, saying: "If we put people totally irrelevant in power, it will not pose a threat to any one else."

    While al-Maliki, who took over the post, most of the members of the army and police of the Shiites, a mixture of ex-militiamen were determined to cleanse Baghdad of Sunni Arabs. In the summer of 2006, he was every morning comes from the reports of the brutal acts of sectarianism. Did Maliki much to stop them, according to Matthew Sherman Chancellor civil U.S. Army, "we are entering upon the office and tell him about the massacre committed by his men. Was saying as he sat - I am sure that those killed were terrorists. Could not get him to take action against the death squads." He was saying that he had not received any evidence that the men of the army and the police acted improperly.

    Maliki's rivals began plotting to depose him, and he was sometimes showcases his strength. In 2006, after months of pushing the Americans to hand over Saddam, and take custody of him and then quickly ordered his execution as was done in the basement Poor lighting at the hands of masked men on the first day of Eid al-Adha.

    At the time, which caused the panic bar executions in the world, Maliki said he faster implementation of the death penalty because he was afraid of trying Saddam Baathists editing - although there is no evidence of that. Criticized by human rights groups did not leave him an excuse, he said, "Where were they during the mass graves, executions and massacres that claimed the lives of hundreds of thousands of Iraqis?".

    U.S. officials had considered that Vzein and execution detracts from the legitimacy of the Iraqi law. During the execution was implementing chanting "Muqtada, Muqtada!" A reference to Muqtada al-Sadr. Even the Americans, who handed over Saddam said the execution was a disaster for the country at home and abroad. The former diplomat said, "the extrajudicial executions, have made him a martyr."

    The rest of the doubts about Maliki's insistence evaporation night twenty-second of March 2008, when al-Maliki told Gen. David Petraeus, commander of the U.S. military, that he ordered the Iraqi army to enter the city of Basra, which was Atakndq the Mehdi Army militia of the Sadrist movement.

    Sadr, an old rival, compete with his Dawa party allegiance to the Shiite layer bad in Iraq, drew strength from the reputation of the Mahdi Army to protect the Shiite areas from attacks by Sunni extremists. Maliki hates the chest and is considered coarse and uneducated, and felt angry when the militias seized large parts of Baghdad and southern Iraq. However, when he announced the attack on Basra, the Americans were surprised because they warned him that the preparations for such a process would take six months. Crocker told me that the Americans did not have a choice but to support him.

    The operation ended - which is dubbed Charge of the Knights - a disaster. The Iraqi army was weak and processing is fully formatted, and claimed the leaders disagree after the start of the fighting directly. Maliki flew to Basra fell in an old mansion surrounded by gunmen chest. The fire mortars unforgiving; killed security official al-Maliki - his friend since childhood. In Washington, Brett went Mcgork - Deputy National Security - to the White House and the mapping of Basra in front of President Bush. Sadr's forces have been shown all over the place on the map, and al-Maliki appeared in a small red dot in the middle. Bush annoyed and said, "You make efforts to win al-Maliki."

    With the intensification of the fighting, contact Crocker and Petraeus Maliki by telephone. Crocker said, "we hear the voices of a mortar rounds falling around him." We suggested that it was time to declare victory and go back. "But al-Maliki refused to do so, as he told me," Americans do not like that the whole situation, I told them this is not you alone, it's my business and I'll stay until the end of the battle. "

    By Dexter Flakinz
    About: The New Yorker

    Posts : 52311
    Join date : 2013-01-17


    Post  butterfly Sat 26 Apr 2014, 18:52

    Soleimani Shiite parties met in your chest and persuaded him to support al-Maliki against the Ministries
    Translation term

    What we left behind in Iraq? (H 3)

    During one month, and with the support of U.S. large, could the Iraqi army defeat the Mahdi Army, and when he asked backers of the militia in Iran a cease-fire, the prime minister refused, was the turning point politically where he showed al-Maliki that he is ready to challenge the armed groups Sunni and Shiite, and that he was ready even to challenge the Iranians. Stop rivals in Baghdad plans to depose him, Crocker said, "Since that moment, we thought that he became eligible for the position."

    not everyone in this optimism; said Adel Abdul-Mahdi, former Deputy President of the Republic: The victory in Basra showed loving side to fight with al-Maliki, who hated Iraqis " After the campaign waged against the Mahdi Army, al-Maliki headed to the method of confinement and monopoly in power, began playing separately away from its partners, whether Sunni or Shia or Kurd. "

    In September 2010 and with the faltering government of the Iraqi parliamentary elections inconclusive invited a group of political leaders to the Iranian city of Qom to celebrate Eid al-Fitr .. Upon arrival there were summoned quietly to a meeting of another kind, they were greeted Qassem Soleimani commander of the Quds Force of Iran paramilitary .

    Over nearly a decade Soleimani was swirling around Iraq as a strong influence Zlaa; plunge the country where the agents and to mediate in the political deals and the introduction of sophisticated explosive to kill American soldiers.

    The objective of Iran in Iraq, a two-pronged: the first is to make the Americans bleed and enhance the strength of the second Shi'ite allies.

    In the parliamentary elections held in March last year, suffered Maliki's coalition - the rule of law - the loss caused him great embarrassment, where the most votes went to the pro-Western coalition - the Iraqi List - headed by Iyad Allawi, who is an enemy of the Iranians.

    A former U.S. diplomat said "we dreamed of the results of those elections, they sustain the momentum useful, the war was the unit back down, for the first time in the history of the Arab world to win a pro-Western alliance in free and fair elections."

    But with the victory of Allawi's list of more votes, they did not get the majority of what made the Allawi and al-Maliki Atzahmon partners in Aútlavehma, despite the satisfactory results of the elections, said American officials that the Obama administration concluded that support Allawi will be difficult, if opposed by the Shiites and Msanteke in Iran.

    Said James Jeffrey, the U.S. ambassador then, "it was certainly nominate the next prime minister Shiites, Iraq will not advance unless they do, Allawi was hopeless."

    Shortly after the election, he was awarded one of the Iraqi judges - under pressure from the Prime Minister - Maliki's first chance to form a government. The decision was inconsistent with the constitution, but that U.S. officials did not object to it.

    Sky said, advisor civil "was intended in the Constitution is clear, and we had notes on who they drafted, but that the Americans supported the verdict in favor of Maliki," but the meeting with Soleimani was the decisive factor in the end. According to American officials, the Soleimani mediate in the crisis by relying on the chest in support of al-Maliki in exchange for a number of ministries, the conditions were great Soleimani, and al-Maliki agreed to be Talabani, President of the Republic, and that the Iraqi intelligence neutral.

    Worse still, he had agreed to eject American forces from the country by the end of 2011, the United States got a copy of the minutes of the meeting and knew the texts of the agreement, but nevertheless decided not to oppose Iranian interference.

    After a month at a meeting of the National Security Council, the White House took on the new system, the wrath of the officials who have spent the past decade in an attempt to secure U.S. interests in Iraq. Former diplomat said, "We have lost four thousand five hundred Americans to leave the Iranians telling result of the war, and ending Bandhar strategic! Heck of it." Resigned in protest at the U.S. diplomat and at least one was working in Baghdad.

    Iyad Allawi bitterness hair, saying, "You need to support the U.S., but want to leave the country has been handed over to the Iranians. Iraq a failed state, it is an Iranian colony."

    The diplomats Americans last attempt to maintain their influence; In one encounters request Jeffrey Maliki commitment to set goals in his second term: granting amnesty to thousands of Sunnis, who were detained without charges; detection prisons that Americans believe that the Iraqis are suffering from torture them; and signed an agreement that allows U.S. troops to remain in the country.

    At the end of that year, the United States brokered a deal for the involvement of Allawi and some members of the list in the government. At the time, al-Maliki or ignore it hit the wall and all the promises, the diplomat said, "It was seen in the eyes and lie."

    Consequences became clear when negotiations began on the issue of withdrawal of U.S. troops after 2011. Told the leaders of all the major Iraqi parties all privately, U.S. leaders say they want to keep a few thousand U.S. military personnel to train Iraqi forces and to help in the pursuit of the rebels.

    Tell me those leaders that al-Maliki was also wanted U.S. troops to stay in Iraq, but he claimed that the agreement to grant American troops immunity from Iraqi courts is not accepted by the people, because that Parliament will prevent the soldiers from the stay unless subject to local law, as well as President Obama was hesitant about keep even a small force in Iraq.

    Over the months, the inability of U.S. officials to answer the basic questions in their meetings with the Iraqis - such as how many troops they want to be left in Iraq - because the administration were not decide.
    Jeffrey says, "did not teach us the White House, we did not know where he was president, and was al-Maliki says all the time, I do not know what should I sell?"

    In one of the meetings, Maliki said that he wishes to sign an executive agreement gives the soldiers a license to stay if he could persuade the Parliament to approve the immunity, quickly rejected the Obama administration's idea.

    MP Sami al-Askari said, "It was the viewpoint of Americans say let's get out of here as soon as possible." I left last U.S. combat troops in Iraq, 18 K 12 011, believed by some U.S. officials that al-Maliki did not intend to never keep American soldiers; close In an email, denied even support such a plan, saying, "I am the owner of the idea of ​​the withdrawal of U.S. forces."

    More Iraqi and American officials are convinced that even the modest power it could prevent chaos - not by fighting but by providing training, intelligence and symbolic presence.

    Askari said, "If there were hundreds of them here, I do not say thousands, they could cooperate with us and become our partners, but after they left all there is no one to talk with him in any matter of affairs."

    Tell me Ben Rhodes, deputy national security adviser, said Obama believes that the full withdrawal of troops was the right decision, that "the presence of U.S. troops can not change in the internal politics of Iraq, this is exaggerated, since they are there does not allow them to dictate the sectarian alliances, Iraqis respond to the political necessities of their own. "

    But the diplomats and U.S. leaders claim that they have played a crucial role and worked as interlocutors between the factions, and narrowed sectarian tendencies of the owners. Gen. Michael Barbero, deputy commanding general in Iraq until January 2011, "We were always restrain rein in al-Maliki; When Maliki was preparing to send tanks to confront the Kurds, we used to say to him and his officials, Snmnekm move if you tried to do so."

    Barbero was angry at the White House for not pushed strongly towards the convention, where he said "you do not have only this political vacuum and this indifference, today we do not have influence in Iraq, and without any forces there, we are not only a group of men."

    There is no longer one that can work as a referee, "everything that happened there was expected - I have yet to come." In fact, American diplomats in Iraq had been sent, a few months before the elections veto message to Washington complaining that the United States - supporting nor indifference - it was encouraging tendencies of authoritarianism of the owners, said one of the signatories to the memorandum, "We believe that we make a dictator."

    After less than 24 hours on the departure of the last convoy of American, al-Maliki government ordered the arrest of Vice President Tareq al-Hashemi, where the prosecution accused him of running death squads assassinated police officers and government officials, at the time were not this practice is odd.

    A Western diplomat said earlier "during the Civil War was the most political leaders in Iraq, death squads, al-Maliki has begun using the security forces to hunt down his rivals." By moving against al-Hashemi, Maliki was to indicate that he had intended to isolate sectarian rivals. Hashemi fled to Kurdistan where officials offered there to protect, were arrested seven of his bodyguards as the first meal of the total 60 members.
    Just days before that at a news conference at the White House to declare an end to the American war, President Obama praised Maliki as "the elected leader of a democratic Iraq, a sovereign and self-reliant."
    Hashemi fled when U.S. officials did not protest publicly, three months later, he was sentenced to death in absentia, what forced him to stay in exile. With the removal of al-Hashemi, Maliki began a hostile campaign to suppress his opponents - especially of the year - and to make the centralized power in his office. In subsequent months has forced a number of senior officials - most notably Shabibi central bank governor who tried to prevent al-Maliki of Iraq's foreign revenue transfers to the operational budget of the government.

    After the 2010 elections is crucial, were arrested head of the Independent Electoral Commission, and when exposed to the Integrity Commission for the network in the Maliki government had issued contracts government to fake companies, the Maliki obstructing trials; immediately thereafter was replaced by Chairman of the Committee President last pro-owners.

    In addition, al-Maliki created the Office of the Adjutant General, who give him control of the army and police forces millions, which often need to be local leaders who report directly to him.

    While Maliki combines the power of his hands, he proceeded to wipe out all traces of the influence of the Sunni in the government circles, and was one of the places that began with National Intelligence Service.
    Former general director was imposed named Mohammed Shahwani, a Sunni, had already been tortured to death his three sons at the hands of agents of Saddam. In August 2009, Shahwani told me he went to al-Maliki with the intelligence report detailing plans for the rebels to launch attacks on a number of government offices.

    Maliki ignored those warnings (al-Maliki denied that, saying that it is impossible to believe Shahwani). Two days later, hit a wave of car bombs and the Ministries of Finance, Foreign Affairs and other government targets, and claimed the lives of one hundred Iraqis and wounded more than five hundred. Shahwani fled to the United States, he said, "I had to leave because I thought to be the next target," during the subsequent months, according to Shahwani and former American officials, al-Maliki has cleared the device almost all of its agents and Mahllih of the year numbered five hundred. Shahwani said, "The device is now a purely Shiite organization."

    In order to prevent Parliament from passing laws contrary to their interests, within Maliki's decision by the Iraqi High Tribunal granted the exclusive right to write drafts of the legislation. In fact, al-Maliki refused to attend the parliament or raise the names of who appoints them to parliament for approval on them.

    Said Adel Abdul Mahdi, a former vice president "could have been for the owners to be a historical figure, Shiites, Sunnis and Kurds were supporting him, but it was required of him a true partnership and give some of his powers to others, we have an Arab saying: If you want everything, you lose everything."

    In the summer of 2012, entered the mysterious man to the office of Finance Minister Rafie al-Issawi and handed him a bundle of documents, said the man, who identified himself as (Muhammad Abdullah), as government contracts worth seven billion dollars, with instructions to send payments to a series of bank accounts of Iraq, It seems it was authenticated by al-Maliki, the Council of Ministers and signed by four of his ministers.

    Issawi has audited the documents and knew immediately it a scam; Valacod and corporate approvals and signatures were "fake," said al-Issawi, Issawi request of his men close the door and arrested the man, but he managed to get out.

    Issawi said immediately after he visited al-Maliki and handed him a file and a picture of a man by a security camera of the ministry, told al-Maliki al-Issawi said the man may have been working with people close to the owners, "asked the Prime Minister to use intelligence agencies to investigate the subject." Issawi did not hear a response on the subject ever, and a few months after Iraqi forces stormed the Ministry of Finance and the Office of burned-Issawi and a number of offices of the Ministry and destroyed cameras that recorded the image of Abdullah and took dozens of al-Issawi protection.

    Maliki publicly denounced al-Issawi, saying the storming of his office a deliberate act with malice aforethought. When I spoke to him in Abu Dhabi was very careful and said he did not know who was behind the contracts the false and the storming operation, where he said "Iraq is full of gangs, militias and full Balvasudain," but he thought the burglary was in retaliation for his attempt to cut the road in front of the theft, "you touch upon the punishment for I refused to work with the other side. "

    He told me a lot of U.S. officials and Iraqis that al-Maliki has to be ordered Balaguetham, said a former official in the CIA "The only forces that can move inside the Green Zone is under the control of al-Maliki."

    Tale Issawi is one of the dozens of stories that I heard about in Iraq and in neighboring countries for the corrupt in the government of al-Maliki, of the circle surrounding the Prime Minister to the smallest staff in the state, most of the allegations is not the evidence, but continuous; All officials of the Americans and the Iraqis, former and current, talking about extortion and bribes, commissions and theft. Many are engaged in the looting of Iraq's oil revenues, which last year exceeded 90 billion dollars.

    And describes others use corrupt Iraqi banks to take advantage of the dollar on the black market. In the past few years show that many government contracts were fake, in 2011 the government canceled a contract worth 1.2 billion dollars to build ten power plants and announced that the company's Canadian chartered to do the work existed only on paper, said a senior official in the intelligence agency, "there is a race in corruption. " Tell me Adel Abdul Mahdi, the former vice president, had been allocated 220 billion dollars for the project was completed six thousand of them little or not done, and that $ 70 billion has been delivered government loans are not repaid.

    Maliki said that these statements may be refuted by reality, and insisted that the Office of Financial Supervision is imposing financial instructions, however, Abdul-Mahdi said that the story of al-Issawi are compatible with logs budget, referring to the seven billion dollars had been earmarked without the completion of any of the business, "it's not fabricated story, see the budget! "

    Resigned Abdul-Mahdi - the moderate Islamist and a favorite among Americans - from his post as deputy president in 2011 with the rest of the members of the Supreme Islamic Council, said Abdul-Mahdi, "We do not believe that this government will succeed for this we withdrew from the post of Vice President and the ministries and everything."

    Many of the allegations of corruption centered on Ahmed al-Maliki - the son of the prime minister. According to many Iraqis and the Americans, the Ahmed often demanding a percentage of government contracts awarded to companies eligibility, either Maliki deemed to those claims that it charges "fabricated by enemies and adversaries," but he acknowledged the legal authority to grant Ahmed unusual.

    In 2011, led by Ahmed raids on contractors the United States government in the Green Zone and forced to leave their offices and confiscated its property, and during an interview last fall, Maliki said he sent his son with the power of the police to arrest a man Constructions Iraqi named Namir punitive charges of embezzlement and tax evasion.

    Maliki said: "When the arrest warrant was issued everyone afraid of approaching the man - referring to the punitive relationships with the media - but Ahmed said they gave me the arrest warrant and Sajelbh," and added that "Ahmed strong."

    Angered many Iraqis from the Prime Minister's son granted such powers and they saw this as a sign that the succession of the rule, and feel the Iraqi official worried that al-Maliki - if he wins the next election - it "will transfer power to his son."

    By Dexter Flakinz
    About: The New Yorker

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    Join date : 2013-01-17


    Post  butterfly Sat 26 Apr 2014, 18:53

    Maliki lived in an area called the "Venice" was the center of the green haven for Saddam's family and his top aides

    Translation term

    What we left behind in Iraq? (Last episode)

    For the year, it is clear that the government's prosecution of Issawi was sectarian, and the response was that they had angry protests. Issawi said to me, "modern democracy in Iraq, everything is crisp and very easy to slip back to a dictatorship."

    Years ago and Sunni leaders are demanding to conduct oversight on the powers of the government to punish its citizens. Anti-terrorism laws allow the arrest of any Iraqi randomly without charges, and human rights groups estimate the number of Sunnis, who were arrested tens of thousands, most of them arrested over the years and in isolation from the world; as the detention of women are subjected to torture and often being raped in detention. He demanded the abolition of the year those laws and the release of prisoners, also called for the withdrawal of the army from the Sunni cities and loosen the de-Baathification, which was used to exclude Sunnis from government positions and keep them away from the polls.

    Maliki and ignore those demands, and his government responded brutally to the new wave of protests. In April and after the killing of one of the soldiers in the town of Hawija, forces attacked the protest camp there and killed at least 44 people. In a televised interview with al-Maliki warned of "sectarian war" and blamed the violence on "remnants of the Baath Party." With the continued repression of hundreds of Iraqis have been killed, mostly civilians, a year.

    Increased force al-Maliki, and respond violently to take the most basic criticisms against him. Often he claims that he has files containing evidence against rivals on corruption and murder. He said on television last year, "I swear to God, if it wanted Parliament summoned Vsazhb and Saqlb minimum upside down, and I'll have a list of names with me and call them one by one, and tell everyone what they were doing."

    In addition, al-Maliki has revived the law of the Saddam era, is a criticism of the prime minister a criminal offense, has established defamation suits against a number of journalists, judges and the House of Representatives, calling for imprisonment and push them compensation for the damage suffered. Said a senior Iraqi politicians "He makes everything issue; of any political dispute or any competition."

    And frequented al-Maliki in relatively revealing of wealth, but he lives in a corner of the green area called "Little Venice" for the large number of springs and canals in it, the region was home to Saddam's family and some senior regime. Today Mercedes cars roam the streets clean. He does not live in the presidential palace of Saddam - allotted for formal occasions - but in the villa was once a house of hospitality. Two live across the square from his notorious. The first is Abu Mahdi Al Dawa Party activist accused of the bombing of the U.S. Embassy in Kuwait in 1983. Foundations engineer brigades Hezbollah, backed by Iran and who was attacking American soldiers during the occupation and considered the U.S. Treasury Department as a terrorist organization.

    When American troops were still in Iraq, Ryan Crocker, said, "We told the owners if he wants to stay safe engineer he stay in Iran." After the withdrawal of troops has been granted Engineer guesthouse on the property Faleh al-Fayad al-Maliki adviser for national security.

    Close to him on the road live Qais al-Khazali, the leader of the League of the Righteous - the militia run by Iran, which launched hundreds of attacks on U.S. forces. U.S. officials say that al-Khazali, was one of the main conspirators in the kidnapping and execution of four American soldiers in Karbala in 2007 by order of Iran. Khazali was detained Americans but handed him over to Iraqi authorities, but was released after the departure of U.S. troops.

    According to American and Iraqi officials, al-Maliki has begun using militias against his opponents, especially the followers of al-Sadr. Iraqi lawmaker said, "al-Maliki Alasaib used to get rid of his enemies."
    Maliki denies this, saying "within the framework of national reconciliation, all the armed groups are welcome in the political process if it abandoned its weapons, but the terrorists are not welcome." Maliki did not deny his relationship Balkhozali; pointed out, shaking his shoulders, "the Americans are the ones who released him."

    Several officials said the American and Iraqi engineer is the main channel of communication to the owners of the Iranian regime, where he works as a personal representative to Soleimani commander of the Quds Force. Re-Maliki, saying "Yes, I have a good relationship with Iran, but I do not have any relations engineer." Advocates say Maliki - including some U.S. officials - he constantly challenges the Iranian regime, but that most indicators suggest that Iran has exercised great influence on the Maliki government.

    A clear example is the shipments of weapons and fighters to the regime of Bashar al-Assad in Syria, through Iraqi airspace. Maliki insists that Iraqi officials regularly inspect Iranian flights to Syria, but the Americans insist that the inspection is rarely done. The deputy senior Iraqi inspection that was for only four flights. Maliki claimed he did not like the lion, but his only option for the war on al-Qaeda, "there is no longer moderate opposition in Syria."

    Izzat Shabandar suggested - an old friend and former ally of the owners - that sectarian Prime Minister pragmatic in part. When he returned Maliki and other exile to Iraq in 2003, quickly concluded that they can not establish an Islamic state because the two communities have fundamental differences about the nature of Islam. Shabandar said, "So, who were working and planning for an Islamic state throughout those years suddenly stopped."

    Was in front of the new leaders have two options; build one nation unites denominations and religions in the country on the idea of ​​democracy. But that was a concept alien, Shabandar said, "before 2003, some of the ideas are forbidden for the Islamists: ideas such as democracy, nationalism and patriotism. These people they could not start a national project, do not know how. Remained Islamists in front of one option keeps them leaders of Iraq: stay away from the Islamic project and go to sectarian project. "

    The price for their own political survival is the growing fear and hostility. "For the leaders of the year, and the duty is to scare people away from the Shiites, and for Shiite leaders to intimidate the people of the year. This way, the presence of one of them to justify the existence of the other." Through these accounts, it was the timing of events in Fallujah - before the national elections - for good timing.

    Al-Qaeda militants taking up positions the center of Fallujah, the Sunni tribes - who fought al-Qaeda someday - surround the city, but in the measurement of the sectarian divide in Iraq, this terrible situation may provide for the owners of a third term. Shabandar said "the situation in Fallujah in favor of al-Maliki."

    Within two hundred miles to the north of Baghdad, in the province of Kurdistan, the legacy of Americans look completely different. In Erbil, capital of the province, nightclubs remain open until dawn, and there are agents for Aljquar cars, and hotel divan with a sushi restaurant and a bar on the roof, and an international airport shiny new.

    Women wander wearing jeans and her hair is blowing; and construction cranes dot the horizon, hundreds of Westerners living and working there. In Sulaymaniyah, American University attract scientists from all over the world. Said Fuad Hussein, the director of the Office of President of the Region, "the Americans should be proud of what they have achieved here." After a decade of occupation of the Kurdish region seem quiet, democratic, secular and pro-Western. In fact, the region is working as an independent state, although he is still part of Iraq by name. The Kurds have their own army and their parliament. Rarely used the Arabic language in speech and even young Aifamoha.

    The expected revenue from its vast oil that combines the country, but instead it seems to break them down. Under the constitution was scheduled distribution of the national budget - derived mostly from oil revenues - according to population, with 17% allocated to the response. The vast majority of the oil comes from the south of the country. Because of the recent conflict, oil production has risen steadily in the south to 3.5 million barrels per day, making Iraq the sixth largest producer in the world. But the balance is changing, With the help of foreign companies are preparing the Kurdistan Regional Government to exploit the huge oil revenues. In October Kurds opened a pipeline carrying oil extractor locally, through Turkey to the Mediterranean Sea at a rate of one hundred thousand barrels per day. By the year 2017, officials say that the rate will reach one million barrels.

    Under the constitution, the government in Baghdad traded oil extracted from existing wells, either newly discovered oil, it is supposed to be exploited in collaboration with the authorities of the region. Maliki accused the Kurds to act unilaterally; Kurds say they are acting under the Constitution, and point out that the Maliki government is not giving them a fair share of oil revenues. This conflict rang deep wedge between the two parties. Finally, in March, the withdrawal of al-Maliki, the Kurds share fully in the national budget and insisted that they secretly infused oil to buyers in Turkey.

    Maliki said angrily, "This is a step toward independence." He says Falah Mustafa Bakir, Minister of Foreign Affairs of Kurdistan, "divorce is inevitable." Experts say that the Kurds do not produce enough oil to compensate for the revenue coming from Baghdad, but that may change with the increase in production.
    According to Nat Kern, who publishes a newsletter about the economy of oil in the Kurdistan region, "it currently pays for the survival of the Kurds in Iraq, but after five years from now will push them into leaving."

    Ironically, the only thing that can prevent the secession of the Kurds is to increase oil production in the south;, where officials expect it to grow three-fold over the next six years, will exceed the revenue coming from the Kurdistan region.

    The dispute over the oil represents only part of the problem; The Kurds feel that there is little of the participants, which brought together the Arabic-speaking regions of Iraq, with the exception of carnage left by Saddam. City of Arbil changed much, thanks to oil money, modern, and there is no resemblance to Baghdad; While the ongoing conflict in the south, the Kurdistan region is developing rapidly. The difference so the psychological capacity day after day. Fuad Hussein, said, "We're talking about a culture of life, while they are preoccupied with the culture of death."

    In November and with the explosion of violence in Iraq, al-Maliki traveled to Washington to ask for help from President Obama. It's a strange sight: Maliki, who announced that the feisty Americans out of Iraq, returns today to Washington in less than two years. Fear of the collapse of the Iraqi state, and White House officials agreed quickly to supply Iraq with 152 Hellfire missiles and more than twenty Apache attack helicopter.

    Officials put the Americans on the side of the fears that al-Maliki's policies pushed the country into the conflict, and blamed the civil war in Syria. I have disappeared long desert border between the two countries and that jihadist groups in Syria and Iraq are working together. Said a senior U.S. official, "the area between Aleppo and al-Anbar has become one of the most terrifying."

    See Emma Sky, a consultant civil During the occupation, the situation was dangerous for the owners was the result of the policies of the White House; has invested a lot of Bush and Obama in the al-Maliki and helped to strengthen authoritarian behavior until he became inevitable. Says Sky "Is wrong Maliki and Karzai - Are we unlucky to such a degree?. Maliki was not so from the beginning. That the problem of these areas is that leaders need to hold political deals. We've Ptqoathm so no longer need to do deals, political, so Qodhana lost all chances of stability. Iraq is being destroyed. we strengthen the man who creates the problem. "

    And see Crocker in Iraq last unintended consequences of the U.S. war long; state we have created can not work without us. Leaving the Americans to the Iraqis a constitution and regular elections, and two hundred and seventy-five members of parliament with a quarter of the seats were held by women. He says former Ambassador Jeffrey optimistic, "al-Maliki worry about re-election. Km from the Arab countries of the world in a situation like this?".

    After nine years on the mediation agreements, the Americans became the richest of them. Crocker said, "we raised clear in the Iraqi political system. Since the early days, they were skeptical of each other, waiver and compromise meant betrayal and death.'s What we did is we made them listen to us. Was required continuous involvement, we would go to the owners and show him our point of view and ask whether in guessed something, we finally convince him to accept the condition that the Sunni leadership several things first. then go into the year. This is how you were going through them things. "

    Crocker says, "We did not promise these things, but still lags behind the political system, and there is a lot of uncertainty because their leaders run things their own way. Intermediaries are still trusted, but we are not present there."

    By Dexter Flakinz
    About: The New Yorker

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